Nineteenth biennial report of the Board of Trustees of the Michigan School for the Deaf at Flint, for the years 1889-90

Dublin Core

Title

Nineteenth biennial report of the Board of Trustees of the Michigan School for the Deaf at Flint, for the years 1889-90

Subject

Psychiatric hospitals.

Description

Document includes reports from both the superintendent and the treasurer of the institution. Although often thought of together with other asylums in the state for mental health, this was truly a school, consisting of pupils with special needs. Traditional schooling and industrial or skilled trades were taught at this institution.

Creator

Board of Trustees of the Michigan School for the Deaf at Flint

Source

Original document held by Traverse Area District Library.

Publisher

Lansing: Robert Smith & Co., State Printers and Binders.

Date

1891.

Contributor

State of Michigan.

Rights

This document is in the public domain.

Relation

See other reports from the Board of Trustees at various institutions in the "Traverse City State Hospital" Digital Collection.

Format

PDF.

Language

English.

Type

Document.

Identifier

MSH0007

Coverage

Flint, Genesee County, Michigan

PDF Text

Text

NINETEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT

BOARD OF TRUSTEES

DEAF
FLIISTT,
For the Years 1889-9O.

BY AUTHOEITY.

LANSING:
BOBEKT SMITH & CO., STATE PKINTEES AND BINDERS.
1891.

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS OF THE MICHIGAN
SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.

BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
PRESIDENT.
- TREASURER.

E. O. GBOSVENOR,
GEORGE T. WARREN,
E. T. CARRINGTON,

SECRETARY.

M. T. GASS, M. A.,
E. F. SWAN,
MRS. GRACE I. GASS,
MISS LIDA RICHMOND,
A. A. THOMPSON, M. D.,

SUPERINTENDENT.
STEWARD.
MATRON.
ASSISTANT MATRON.
PHYSICIAN.

TEACHERS.
THOMAS L. BROWN,
WILLIS HUBBAED,
JOHN J. BUCHANAN,
GEOKGE W. COOK,
THOMAS MONROE,
THOMAS J. ALLEN,

ELLA J. CRAWFORD,
MINNIE TYKRELL,
ADDIE HENDERSHOT,
EMMA KNIGHT,
HELEN L. PALMER,
MRS. H. R. J. MERCER,

NORA V. LONG,
LINA HENDERSHOT,
M. T. BENNETT,
JESSIE BARNEY,
MRS. CELIA A. ALLEN,
IDA M. JACK.

SUPERVISORS.
E. HOWARD LARKIN,

SARAH R. JONES,

C. M. PIERCE.

EDWIN BARTON, Foreman of Cabinet Shop.
W. G. BRYANT, Foreman of Printing Office.
JOHN LYNCH, Foreman of Shoe Shop.
Miss AGNES BALLANTYNE, Forewoman of Sewing Department.
GEO. L. McQuiGG, Engineer.
THOMAS LAKE, Foreman of Farm.

REPORT OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES.

"To His Excellency, Cyrus G. Luce, Governor, and the Honorable the Legislature of
the State of Michigan:

SIRS—In compliance with the statute requiring it, the Board of Trustees
of the Michigan School for the Deaf submit their nineteenth biennial
report, for the years beginning July 1, 1888 and ending on June 30, 1890.
Accompanying this are also the reports of the Treasurer, Superintendent,
Physician and Steward, made a part of this report, and from these may be
obtained detailed information in regard to the school.
During the period covered by this report the work for which the school
was established has been carried forward with earnestness and zeal and
substantial progress has been made in all departments.
The general health of the pupils has been excellent, there having been
no serious sickness during the two years and no deaths for a period of
nearly five years. This state of things is due to the good sanitary conditions in which the buildings are always kept, the regular habits under
which pupils are placed and the constant care given to their welfare and
comfort. The school physician visits them daily and any symptoms of
ailment are brought to his notice and treatment rendered if necessary.
Thus prompt action, too, no doubt, in many instances warded off serious
consequences. It is, indeed, gratifying to the board, as it must be to
parents, that the rate of mortality here, shows so great a security against
the ravages of disease and epidemics. The children seem contented and
happy in their school life here and appreciative of what is done for them,
.and in return they are kindly responsive in the performance of duties
imposed upon them. A mutual good feeling exists between officers,
employe's and pupils, and all are cooperating with each other to promote
the best interests of the school.
In the school and study the younger pupils are occupied seven hours
each day, besides doing one and a half hours domestic work about the
buildings; and the older pupils spend four and one half hours in school and
study and four hours in the shops. It will be observed then that each
pupil is employed from seven and one half to nine hours each day, either
in the pursuit of his studies or some industrial work.
The results of their work in school is truly gratifying, and the proficiency shown in their studies is such as would do credit to more fortunate
children in a hearing school, while in the shops the degree of skill attained
has made a special demand in some quarters for mechanics trained here.
As most of these children are to maintain themselves by their industrial
work we feel that this is an important part of their education, and it is in

6

MICHIGAN SCHOOL, FOE THE DEAF.

this skillful training that they get, rather than in the value of the articles
that they manufacture that we should look for the greatest good of these
departments.
It is difficult, however, to fully appreciate what the school is doing for
these children, unless one understands the extent of their misfortune and
the consequences of a deaf child growing up without an education. With
no language the deaf have no means of communication, and no means of
acquiring knowledge. Children growing up thus, untrained, become men
and women with very limited conceptions of right or wrong, and with a
capacity to enjoy very little more than is craved by their appetites or
passions. To take such children and make intelligent beings of them,
with all the qualities that constitute a refined manhood, to make Godfearing, law-abiding, self-sustaining citizens of them, is indeed a noble
work and a work well worth all it costs the State.
In its financial management the school has received our constant care and
attention and we believe all moneys appropriated by the legislature have
been wisely expended, and judiciously applied to purposes for which they
were designed. At the date of this report some small balances on a few
of the special appropriations remain unexpended, but will be needed during the season at hand to complete work already begun or to more fully
accomplish the objects for which they were made.
The present state of the current funds indicate that they will be sufficient
to carry the work of the school through the next six months, the full time
for which they were to provide. It has been our effort to keep within the
limits of the appropriation and at the same time to make all provisions
necessary to the health and comfort of the pupils and to the successful
prosecution of the proper work of the school. To this end they have been
furnished comfortable quarters, plain, wholesome food and efficient teachers
and officers, and as to how well the work has been accomplished, we are
willing that the results alone should speak.
The number under instruction during the two years is • 356 with an
average attendance of 298. What the number for the next two years will
be is somewhat conjectural, but probably some greater than for the two
years past. To provide for this and some slight increase in expenditures
we have estimated as necessary current expenses for
1891
1892

$58,000 00
58,000 00
Special.

Steam mangle
Painting and calcimining
Library and apparatus
Fencing, tiling and grounds
Painting outside walls
Decorating chapel, hospital, etc
Bedsteads and mattresses
Eentalof land

400 00
1,200 00
1,00000
500 00
2,800 00
500 00
500 00
200 00

For a fuller description of the purposes and necessity of these various
appropriations you are referred to the Superintendent's report.
We have carefully examined his recomendations and the estimates above

REPOET OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES.

7

made, and are fully satisfied that the amounts are not only desirable, but
really necessary to the best interests of the school.
A communication from the State Board of Charities and Corrections
with their recommendation on these various appropriations is attached
hereto.
Lansing, Nov. 3, 1890.
M. T. Gass, Superintendent Michigan School for the Deaf:
DEAK SIB—your communication to the State Board of Corrections and
Charities, submitting for its consideration and opinion the proposed
appropriation for your institution for the next two years has been
received.
The Board visited the School for the Deaf as required September 16,
and " investigated the condition and needs of the same." We have carefully considered the appropriation proposed, and respectfully submit herewith our opinions of the same.
Current expenses $58,000 for each of the years 1891 and 1892. While
comparison shows some little decrease in some items, from estimates of
two years ago, an increase in the force employed, advance of salaries in a
few instances, and larger estimates in the items of medical expenses,
renewing of bedding and furniture, and repairing of buildings, more than
absorbs this decrease. In our opinion all these items, causing a net
increase, could be reduced, and the institution be maintained by an appropriation no larger than that of two years ago, namely, $57,000, per annum,
and must therefore approve of only such amount for the purpose.
Painting and calcimining $1,200, approved.
Library, $1,000 ($500 each year). While the need of an appropriation
for this purpose is, in our opinion, beyond question, $300 each year we
believe would serve the purpose, and therefore approve this item at such
figure.
Brick painting, $2,800. A large appropriation is needed for current
expenses to maintain your institution. This appropriation is asked largely,
as a matter of taste in the outward appearance of buildings; with this
consideration in mind we must decline to approve of this appropriation.
Steam mangle $400, approved.
Bedsteads and bed-springs $500, approved.
Fencing, tiling and grounds, $500. Not having been supplied with the
details of this item, this Board is unable to determine as to the amount of
work contemplated, or its cost, and therefore can express no opinion as to
the appropriation needed. In regard to the order of expenditure noted,
this Board would recommend that it be reversed, and that the tiling necessary be first thoroughly done.
Annual rental of 54 acres of meadowland, $200 for each year, approved.
Papering, decorating and improving chapel, study room and hospital
$500. Approved.
Yours respectfully,
GEO. D. GILLESPIE,
L. C. STOKES, Secretary.
Chairman.
In closing this report the trustees desire to again express their entire
confidence in the ability and integrity of the Superintendent and his
efficient corps of teachers and assistants. The past two yeal-s has, in all

8

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.

that the school is designed to accomplish, been a period of unexcelled
prosperity, and under the present management and organization we feel
assured of its continued success. The State has been liberal in the support of all and especially of its educational institutions, and anxious only
for results. The good work done here in the education of a class incapable of instruction elsewhere and who without this special means of training must grow up in the grossest ignorance, is such as to bear a most
favorable comparison with the work done in any of our schools. It is, too,
of such character as to reflect credit upon the institution and State and to
commend the needs of the school to the same generous and favorable consideration that they have received in former years.
Eespectfully submitted,
B. O. GEOSVENOE, President.
E. T. CAEEINGTON, Secretary.
GEO. T. WAEEEN, Treasurer.
Elint, Mich., June 30, 1890.

TREASURER'S REPORT

FISCAL YEARS ENDING
JUNE 30, 1889 AND JUNE 30, 1890.

10

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOE THE DEAF.

George T. Warren, Treasurer School for the Deaf.
DEBIT.
$1,012 30

July 1. To balance
1889.
June 30. To Cash received during fiscal year:
State Treasurer, Sec. 1, Act 98, Laws of 1887
State Treasurer, Sec. 2, Act 98, Laws of 1887:
Furniture and bedding
Fencing, tiling, coal shed, sewers and grounds

$57,576 58
$1,500 00
. 1,500 00

State Treasurer, Sec. 18, Act 233, Laws of 1881:
Indigent pupils

3,000 00
3,630 46

Farm and garden
Shoe shop
Cabinet shop
Sewing department
Printing office
Postage
Heating apparatus
School books, etc
Medical expenses
Pupils' expense account.
Fuel...

$253 62
924 18
358 76
284 68
151 26
57 33
356 65
18 83
3 50
1,177 23
5 00
$37 00
89 85

Walks
Indigent pupils.

64,207 04

$3,591 04
126 85

3,717 89
. 16,000 00

Flint, National Bank loan.

$84,937 28

George T. Warren, Treasurer School for the Deaf.
DEBIT.
1889.
July 1. To balance on hand
1890.
June 30. To Cash received during fiscal year:
State Treasurer, Sec. 1, Act 154, Laws of 1889
State Treasurer, Sec. 2, Act 154, Laws of 1889:
Stock shed
Roof and gutters
Library..
Sidewalks
Painting and calcimining
Watersupply
New buildings
_.

_.
$57,000 00
._
..

State Treasurer, Sec. 16, Act 223, Laws of 1881:
Indigent pupils . . . . .
_
...
Farm and garden
Shoe shop
Cabinet shop
Sewing department
Printing office
Heating apparatus
Pupils' expense account. _
Bedding
Board and tuition
Furniture. _
Crockery and cooking utensils
Fuel
'.. _
Postage
Miscellaneous expenses..
Indigent pupils
Balance

$357 05

_

-

..._

$50000
500 00
200 00
500 00
1,20000
154 31
1,139 51

4,193 82
3,863 75
$65,057 57
$51798
1,416 48
31 71
26408
143 25
101 21
1,03858
50 00
20671
10 00
3240
1475
60 97
11 08
$3,894 15
19057
3,61571
$73,115 05

TREASURER'S REPORT.

11

George T. Warren, Treasurer School for the Deaf.
CREDIT.
1889.
June SO. By Cash disbursed as per vouchers surrendered to Auditor General:
Current expenses
'.
Special purposes:
Indigent pupils
Steam pipe covering
Painting and calcimining
Walks
.
Roofs and gutters
..
Hospital
...
..
Laundry
Printing office
Furniture, new building
Library
Fencing, tiling and ornamenting grounds
Jacket, soup kettles, etc. „

$63,362 OS

..

Flint National Bank loan
Balance...

8,720 31
$152 76 **»
219 77
39 51
25553
999 83
288 09
139 29
1 19
41 18
251 77
78 92
2,497 84
25,00000
857 05

$84,937 2S

George T. Warren, Treasurer School for the Deaf.
CREDIT.
1890.
June 30. By Cash disbursed as per vouchers surrendered to Auditor General during fiscal year:
Current expenses
$63,89200
Special purposes:
Stock shed
$50000
Roofs and gutters
9115
Library
14407
Sidewalks
500 00
Indigent pupils
4,054 32 "»
Painting and calcimining
1,077 02
Furniture and bedding
1,389 26
Fencing, tiling, coal sheds, sewers and grounds
1,251 55
Fencing, tiling and ornamenting grounds
215 68

$73,115 05

12

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.
STATE OF MICHIGAN, in Account with George T. Warren, Treasurer
Furn- Fenci'g,
tiling, Indigent
ture and coal
sh'd pupils.
bedding. sewers
and
grounds Abstract
Abstract Abstract
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.

Credits.

Date.


Steam Painting
and Walks.
pire cov- Calciering. mining.

Repairing Hospital
roof
and
gutters.
A bstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.

1888.
$152 76 $249 77
Jnlv 1. By Balance (on hand) _ ,_.
1889.
Jnn. 30.
Cash from State Treasury— _ $1,50000 $1,50000 $3,63046
Loan from Flint Nat'l Bank
Cash from earnings of inst'n
89 85

$2 51 $255 53 $999 83

37 00

Total available during fiscal year $1,50000 $1,50000 $3,72031 $152 76 $249 77
By balance (overdrawn) to new

$39 51 $255 53 $999 83

$1 50000 .$1,50000 $3,72031 $152 76 $249 77

$39 51 $255 53 $999 83

Abstra't Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.

Debits.
1888.
July 1. To Balance (overdrawn)
1889.
Disbursements (exclusive of
Jun. 80.
loans paid)
Loans paid to Flint National
Bank

$3,72031 $152 76 $249 77

$39 51 $255 53 $999 83

Total debits during fiscal year..
$3,72081 $152 76 $249 77
To bal. (on hand) to new acc't- $1,50000 $150000

$39 51 $255 53 $999 83

Footings

._

$1,50000 $1,50000 $8,72031 $152 76 $249 77

$39 51 $255 53 $999 83

TREASURER'S RETORT.
of the School for the Deaf, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889.
Fenci'g, Jacket FurniPrinting Library. tiling
soup
Water
New
ture,
Aggregate
and
Total of Current
Laundry office.
new
Supply. buildi'gs building,
exclusive
orna- kettles,
builoi'g.
etc.
etc.
expenses.
Aggregate
of balmenting
special,
ances and
grounds
etc.
Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract
transfers.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Abstract
Bb.
Aa.
$288 09 $189 29

$41 18 $467 45

$78 92

$1 19

$1,382 70

$1,012 30

6,630 46 $57,576 58 64,207 04 $64,207 04
16,000 00 16,000 00 16,000 Oft
2,359 54 2,359 54 2,359 54
126 85 1,231 50 1,358 35 1,358 35$288 09 $139 29

$41 18 $467 45

$78 92

$1 19

$8,140 01 $77,167 62 $84,937 23
$154 31 $1,139 51

$288 09 $139 29

$41 18 $467 45

$78 92

1,564 81

$1 19 $154 31 $1,139 51 $8,140 01 $78,732 43 $84,937 23 $83,924 93

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.

Abstract
A.

$154 31 $1,139 51
$288 09 $139 29

$41 18 $251 77

$78 92

$1 19

$37040
$6,218 15

53,362 03 $59,580 18 $59,580 18
25,000 00 25,000,00

25,000 00

$288 09 $139 29

$41 18 $251 77
215 68

$78 92

$1 19 $154 31 $1,139 51 $6,218 15 $78,732 43 $84,580 18
1,921 81
35705

$288 09 $139 29

$41 18 $467 45

$78 92

$1 19 $154 31 $1,139 51 $8,140 01 $78,732 43 $84,937 23 $84,580 18

Loans outstanding, July 1,1888
Loans made during fiscal year ending June 30,1889
Loans paid during fiscal year ending June 30, 1889

.

$9,000 00
16,000 00

$25,000 00
25,000 00

14

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOB THE DEAF.
STATE OF MICHIGAN, in Account with George T. Warren

Date.

Stock
Shed.

Credits.

Boofs
and
gutters.

Library.

Sidewalk*.

Indigent
pupils.

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
1889.
July 1.
1890.
June 80.

cash from State treasury

_

, ._ ._ .

$500 00

$500 00

$200 00

$500 00

$3,863 75
190 57

Total available during fiscal yaar

Footings

disbursements (exclusive of loans paid) _ _

Footings _

_ -_

$500 00

$200 00

$500 00

$4,054 82

$500 00

$500 00

$200 00

$500 00

$4,054 32

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.

Debits.
1889.
July 1.
1890.
June 30.

$500 00

,_

$500 00

$91 15

$144 07

$500 00

$4,054 32

$500 00

$91 15
408 85

$144 07
55 93

$500 00

$4,054 82

$500 00

$500 00

$200 00

$500 00

$4,054 32

15

TEEASUEER'S REPORT.
Treasurer of School for the Deaf for the year ending June 30, 1890.
Painting Furni- Fencing,
tiling, Fencing,
tiling
Water
Total of
and
New
coal
shed and
ture
and
orna- supply. buildings buildcalcimin- bedding. sewers
menting
ing.
ing,
and
grounds.
special,
Abstract
Abstract
Abstract Abstract grounds.
Abstract
etc.
Abstract
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
Bb.
$1,500 00 $1,500 00

$215 68

$1,200 00

Current
expense.
Abstract
Aa.

$1,921 86
$154 31 $1,139 51

8,057 57
190 57

Aggregate,
exclusiye
of
Aggregate. balances
and
transfers.

$357 05
$57,000 00
2,596 81
1,297 34

65,057 57
2,596 81
1,487 91

$65,057 57
2,596 81
1,487 91

$1,200 00 $1,500 00 $1,500 00

$215 68

$154 31 $1,139 51 $10,170 00

$60,894 15
4 562 66

$69,499 34
3 615 71

$1,200 00 $1,500 00 $1,500 00

$215 68

$154 31 $1,139 51 $10,170 00

$65,456 81

$73,115 05

$69,142 29

$73,115 05

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.
B.

Abstract
A.

'$1,564 81

$154 31 $1,139 51
$1,077 02 $1,389 26 $1,251 55

$215 68

$9,223 05

63,892 00

$73,115 05

$1,077 02 $1,389 26 $1,251 55
122 98
110 74
248 45

$215 68

$154 31 $1,139 51 $9,228 05
94695

$65,456 81

$73,115 05

$1,200 00 $1,500 00 $1,500 00

$215 68

$154 31 $1,139 51 $10,170 00

$65,456 81

$73,115 05

$73,115 05

SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT.

To the Board of Trustees :
GENTLEMEN—Under provisions of the statute, I herewith submit the
nineteenth biennial report for the Michigan School for the Deaf, which
covers the period of two years, beginning on July 1, 1888, and closing on
June 30, 1890.
It is with pleasure that I again call your attention to the history of the
past two years. In no period of its existence, I think, has greater harmony
prevailed and at no time have more earnest efforts been put forth toaccomplish the work we have to do. The inspiring motive of all has
seemed to be to attain the best results possible, and steady and encouragingprogress has been made in all departments.
ATTENDANCE.

Total enrollment for two years
Average attendance for two years

3501
298

Number in attendance in 1888-89—Boys
Girls _.

171
131

TotaL.

302

Number in attendance in 1889-90—Boys
Girls._

165
134

_......

Total-

299

New pupils admitted in 1888-89—Boys
Girls _
Total _ _ .

26
14

. ._.

40

New pupils admitted in 1889-90—Boys
Girls
Total _
Total admission for two years

23
23
..............

......

46
86

SUPERINTENDENT'S REPOET.

17

There have been graduated or honorably dismissed during the past two
years as follows:
1889—Boys
12
Girls _
..
12
Total

24

1890—Boys
Girls _

19
8

Total ..
Dismissed as incapable during two years
The cause of deafness of the 350 enrolled is as follows:
Congenital
Spinal fever
Spinal meningitis
Spinal disease
Cerebro spinal meningitis
Affection of spine
Spinal and brain trouble
Brain fever with cerebrum congestion
Spinal and brain fever
Brain fever
Affection of brain
Inflammation of brain
Spotted fever
Scarlet fever
:
Typhoid fever
Billions fever
Fever
Lung fever
Winter fever
Unknown
,
Measles
Disease
Cold
Gathering in head
Whooping cough
Catarrh
Ulceration
Fits
Inflammation in ear
Paralysis
Convulsions
Croup
Fall
Scrofula
of middle ear
Earache
Canker sore mouth
Swelling in head
King's Evil

3

27
5

!__

92
49
14
11
5
2
1
1
1
12
1
2
2
39
15
2
5
1
1
20
10
8
7
5
4
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

18

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOE THE DEAF.

I
Erysipelas
1
Headache
1
Quinine
.
1
Fright
1
Epizootic
1
Mumps
1
Whooping cough and measles.
1
Constitutoinal causes
1
Falling into water
1
Inflammation
* __
1
Teething
1
Diphtheria..
Twenty-three per cent of the above are reported as congenital mutes.
Including the twenty the cause of whose deafness is stated as unknown,.
and the most of whom were probably so born, and the per cent of congenital deaf is thirty-two. Twenty-eight per cent were made deaf by some
form of spinal or brain disease, eleven per cent by scarlet fever and four
per cent by typhoid fever.
The attendance by counties is as follows:
6
Alcona
1 Lapeer
4
Alger
1 Lenawee
1
Allegan
5 Livingston
2
Alpena
2 Mackinac
3
Antrim
1 Macomb
6
Arenac
1 Mason
5
Barry
1 Manistee
6
Bay
13 Marquette
3
Benzie
1 Mecosta
3
Berrien
17 Menominee
2
Branch
4 Midland
12
Cass
1 Monroe
5
Calhoun
5 Montcalm
Cheboygan
3 Montmorency
1
4
Clinton
3 Muskegon
'
3
Eaton
9 Newaygo
__•_ 11
Emmet
1 Oakland
2
Genesee
12 Oceana
4
Gogebic
1 Osceola
1
Grand Traverse
1.. 2 Otsego
9
Gratiot
4 Ottawa
15
Hillsdale
4 Saginaw
... 12
Houghtoii
3 St. Glair
4
Huron
8 St. Joseph
5
Ingham
8 Sanilac
1
Ionia
9 Schoolscraft
3
losco
3 Shiawassee
4
Iron
1 Tuscola
4
Isabella
3 Van Buren
8
Jackson
4 AVashtenaw
44
Kalamazoo
5 AVayne
5
Kalkaska
1 Wexford
1
Kent
.... 11 Mississippi (noil, res.)
Lake ..
2

19

SUPEBINTENDENT'S REPORT.
Since 1865 the enrollment for each year is as follows:

1865 the term closed with 94 pupils. 1877-8 pupils in attendance 257
1878-9
259
1866
109
1867
116
1879-80
257
242
1868
119
1880-1
1869
1881-2
249
135
262
1870
133
1882-3
1883-4
148
271
1871
1884-5
266
1872
159
1873
1885-6
304
153
1874
183
1886-7
303
1875
196
1887-8
301
1876
212
1888-9
302"
1889-90
299
The number of pupils admitted each year from the foundation of the
school to the present time is shown in the following table:
Years.

Blind.

Blind.

Deaf.

Total.

1854-5
1855-6___.
1856-7
1857-8. ._
1858-9
1859-60

1
9
19
11
3
5

11
30
18
15
16
13

12
39
37
26
19
18

1872-3
1873-4.
1874 5
1875-6
1876-7
1877-8

10
13
7
8
6
7

27
41
34
39
28
38

37
54
41
47
34
45

1860-1
1861-2 _I
1862-3
1863-4
1864-5
1865-6 .

2
5
6

12
20
23
25
33
19

1878-9
1879-80
1880-1
1881 2
1882-3
1883-4

8
2

29
35
55
51
42
36

37
37

11
5

10
15
17
25
22
14

1866-7...
1867-8
1868-9
1869-70
1870-1
1871-2 II

6
8
6
6
8
6

17
19
21
21
25
26

23
22
27
27
33
32

1884-5 „
1885-6
1886-7
1887-8
1888-9
1889-90

Blind admitted _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Deaf and dumb admitted

Years.

Deaf.

Total.

40
58
35
30
40
46
_ ..

173
1,041

In the table that follows are shown the number born deaf, or if not born
deaf, at what age and by what deafness was occasioned, and the number
admitted at dif 'erent ages:

Causes of Deafness.

Pupils.

1888-1889.

•8 .
a'S.
.gw

Statistics Concerning New
Pupils.

&D
ff
'%
I

S3

2o
o

1
h

New Pupils.
12

1
7
4

9

1
3
3
2

4

1
3

4
1
3

3

2

2

2

2

1
1
2

2

2

1

1
1

1 1
2
Spinal
1 Fever.

Scarlet Fever.
1
1 1
....
Typhoid
1 1 Fever.

1

1

1
1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
1

1

1
1

1

1
2

3

3
4
1
1

13
8

4
8

5
4

3
1

4

1
2

2

21

12

9

4

4

3

2

11
4
1

5
4

5

1
2
1

1
2

1

1
1

2

1
1

1

Sex.
2

1
1

1
1

2

2

2

1Brain Fever.
1 1
1
1
Convulsions.

1
1

Paralysis.
Earache.
Headache.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Cerebro-Spinal
Meningitis.
1
1
1 ....
Measles.
1
1
Affection of Spine.
1 1 1 1
2
Inflammation in
Ears.
King's Evil.

1

1

Spinal Meningitis.

Age When Admitted.

ife ga
i1

£ oiH
(§ b

!

49
13
5
13
11
7
3

37
8
2
11
7
3
3

86
21
7
24
18
10
6

3 20
1 13
2
6
2 11

11
13
2
10

31
26
8
21

37

49
87

OS

Congenital.

Age when deafness occurred . __ 21

Total

1(3
11

i

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

i
i

1

1

8
2
2
4

1 6
2

1

8

49

86

SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT.

21

Of the above 21 or 24 per cent of the entire number were born deaf;
eight are unknown, and of the 57 who are deaf from causes named, nine
are from scarlet fever and 23 from spinal and brain affection.
Seven became deaf before one year of age, 24 between the ages of one and
three, 18 between the ages of three and six, and ten after six years of age.
Two children in the above list were born deaf; each have parents who
were second cousins, and one has a brother born deaf, and the other has a
brother deaf from earache, and also two second cousins who are deaf.
There are in the above from one family, two brothers born deaf and two
sisters deaf from unknown causes, and they have a cousin deaf, who
entered school with them, yet beyond these five there are no traces of deafness in the family.
Another who entered school during the last two years has three sisters
in school with her and all born deaf, with deaf father and mother.
Among the other cases of congenitals one has two deaf sisters, three
have each one deaf brother or sister, one has two cousins, one a second cousin, and another a distant relative deaf.
Of those made deaf by sickness, one from spinal fever, has both parents
and an aunt deaf. One has a second cousin born deaf. Another deaf from
cold has a sister who became deaf from a fall. One who became deaf from
convulsions has an aunt deaf. A girl deaf from constitutional causes at
ten or twelve years of age has a brother deaf from a like cause and three
aunts also deaf.
Of those reported with cause of deafness unknown, one has a brother
born deaf and a sister deaf from catarrh; another has two brothers born
deaf and a cousin also deaf.
0

ADMISSION.

The school is open to all deaf children, nine years of age or over, and
under twenty; and it is entirely free to those whose parents are residents
of the State, there being no charge whatever for instruction or maintenance. Children whose parents are in such circumstances that they cannot
furnish the necessary clothes, are, under the provision of legislative enactment, clothed at the expense of the counties of which they are residents.
Every obstacle to the admission of the deaf to the school is removed so far
as the State can provide, and there should be as little delay on the part of
parents as possible, after the age of nine in bringing their children here.
Children who fail to enter school till they are somewhat advanced in years
beyond the age of nine or ten seldom do so well in their school work as
those who come at the proper age, and the longer such delay the greater
detriment to the child. Deaf children generally grow up in their homes
with very little, if any, intellectual training, and as they advance in years
their habits of conduct and thought, however erroneous, become more and
more fixed, and the difficulty of correcting the wrong and instilling the
right into their minds is correspondingly increased. As promptly as
possible after nine years of age, every child who is a proper subject should
be placed under instruction in the school.
The only conditions necessary are that the child is too deaf to make
progress in a hearing school and that they shall be possessed of good health
and a sound mind. I wish to emphasize especially these three conditions.
This institution is a school and only a school, and as such cannot afford a
retreat for those that are afflicted in body. Children who have any physi-

22

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.

cal ailments that would unfit them for daily attendance in school at homeare not proper subjects for school here. Children who have their hearing
and have never learned to talk are, as a rule, feeble minded, and as this is
a school essentially for the deaf and all our methods of instruction are
adapted to this class of children, those who hear can be better instructed
elsewhere, and should be. This leads me to remark as I have in former
reports, the great need of a school for feeble minded children. Nearly all
of the neighboring States have made provision for the education of this
class of unfortunates, in the establishment of schools designed especially
for their instruction; and while Michigan stands abreast of all other States
in her philanthropic and educational work, yet she is delinquent and far
behind many of them in this particular. I have visited several of these
schools and the work they are doing is really a grand one. The work I
have seen done in them is such as would be a credit to any of our public
schools, and the making of useful citizens out of those that, without
instruction would be a sore affliction to thousands of homes and a burden
to society, is an undertaking that should commend itself to our State
officers and legislators. From the numerous communications I have concerning such children, whose parents are ever seeking to get them into
our institutions; and from the ratio that I have observed they bear to the
number of deaf in States, where means are provided for their education, I
am sure there are at least four hundred feeble minded in Michigan who
are of school age. Certainly it is a class of such condition and numbers
as demands serious consideration.
CHANGES.

Mrs. Emma Cook, at the close of the year in June, resigned. She had
been a teacher in the school eight years. She was a thorough and efficient
teacher and by the faithful performance of her duties had attained the
highest degree of promotion. She retires from the profession with the
regrets and most sincere respect of all those with whom she was associated,
to attend to domestic duties in her own household.
At the same time Miss Marion Hendershot, who had been a teacher
since 1885, resigned to take a position in the Philadelphia school. Miss
Hendershot had done five years of most excellent service for the school
here and the call she has received to go elsewhere at an increased salary
is a substantial recognition of this fact. Her call being the fifth one from
this school to go into the same corps of teachers is a rather flattering testimonial of the good training they receive here, and is indeed, about all
the comfort we can get out of this systematic purloining. In the spring of
1889 Miss Nora Long was employed to give instruction to an oral class
and this enabled us to dispense with one teacher in the sign department.
Mr. A. H. Power whose term of service expired in June of the same year,
was not, therefore, re-employed.
On October 1, 1890, Dan H. Church, who had occupied the position of
steward for some seventeen years declined a re-appointment. He had been
a long and faithful servant of the school but on account of ill health felt
it necessary to retire to his farm where he has since been engaged, and
where we all most sincerely hope he may find the better health he seeks.
Mr. E. F. Swan was elected to fill his place and we deem ourselves fortunate in being able to secure the services of a man with his years of
experience in this line of work and so well adapted to the position.

SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT.

23

SCHOOLS.

Our system of instruction continues upon the same plan as indicated in
former reports. Our object is, of course, to first give these children the
English language and whatever there may be in methods, to best accomplish this result we are always ready to employ. It being a well tested
theory that the best way to learn a language is to use it, we aim on all
possible occasions, to have pupils express themselves and converse in
English. By this means recitations are conducted and nearly all communication is carried on between teachers and pupils. It is the language of
the school room, and signs are only used for the purposes of illustration or
in instances where the English attained is not sufficient to convey the
idea.
The language is employed both by writing and spelling upon the
fingers, and with those who can make the best progress by oral methods
the spoken language is used. We have consequently an oral department,
where those are placed who show an ability to speak or read lips and here
all communication is by speech. This department has been in operation
a little over one year, and one class consisting of twelve pupils under the
instruction of Miss Nora Long, has been taught wholly by this method.
Sufficient time has not yet been given to this kind of work here to
demonstrate its possibilities so as to fully determine its value as compared
with other methods of instruction for the deaf. From what has been
done, however, in other schools where it has been more thoroughly tried,
and from what has been accomplished in this department of our own
school, with only a year's work and that under disadvantages, confirms me
in the belief that with some pupils it is a successful, and hence best
method of instruction; for while they are learning to write the language
they are also learning to speak it and to read it from the lips of those
with whom they converse. I am not yet convinced, however, that it is a
method by which all the deaf can best learn. While all, perhaps, might
learn to speak a few words, very few of them only would, if taught
exclusively by this method, acquire a knowledge of the language that
would enable them to use it intelligently. To learn words simply as the
names of things is one thing,—to learn them so as to make an intelligent
use of them in the construction of sentences to express thought, is quite
another.
The crucial test of a child's knowledge of a language, is his ability to
use it in communicating ideas, and not the great number of words of
which he knows only the dictionary meaning.
I believe experience has shown that, while some few can succeed best
by oral instruction, a large majority of the deaf will acquire a better use
of language and a clearer and fuller knowledge of other subjects taught
them by use of combined methods. The success of the few we have in
this department has so far, fully justified our expectations, and I believe
that it is a kind of work that should receive all encouragement to the end
that every deaf child who can best succeed by this method, should have
the full benefit of this kind of instruction. Among the higher classes a
system of department work has been adopted during the last year. Mr.
Brown has the subject of history, Mr. Cook arithmetic, Mr. Hubbard
grammar and geography and Mr. Monroe sciences. Every teacher has a
special taste for certain studies and in these he excels both as a student,
and as an instructor. In the contemplation of this plan it was the theory

24

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.

that each teacher could do better class work in teaching a favorite study
than one for which he had little taste. Also that by giving his whole
attention to one or two subjects he could treat them better than though
he had a diversity of subjects as was the case under the old plan of
recitations.
As now arranged every class goes to one teacher for instruction in
arithmetic, another in history, another in sciences and so on. By this
means the classes not only receive better instruction but the pupils themselves seem to have a keener appreciation of the importance of their
studies and to pursue them with greater zeal and interest. They come to
their class rooms better prepared for their recitations, and seem to perform their tasks more for the good they get out of them than for the
purpose of complying simply with the requirements of teachers to prepare
them. The entire school work is more voluntary and seems less forced
than under the old method of recitation and at the same time better
progress, I think, is made.
The regular school course consists of two departments, primary and
grammar, embracing the first eight years. All pupils are entitled to this
course or so much of it as they may be able to complete in the eight years
allowed them in school. In it are included such branches of study as are
generally taught in our common schools and these and the acquiring of a
language constitutes the work of these departments. An academic department is added, in which are included besides further work in language and
arithmetic, philosophy, physiology, natural history and civil government.
This course is open to those who upon the recommendation of the superindent may be permitted by the board to pursue it, and the privilege is
granted only to those who have shown ability to successfully enter upon
such studies.
The art department is still carried on under the instruction of Mrs.
H. B. J. Mercer, and pupils have made commendable progress in this
branch of their work. During the last two years in addition to the drawing done in this department, a number of pupils have been taught
wood carving. This comes in direct line of their work in drawing, and
designing, and although but recently introduced, considerable skill has
been shown in some of the work turned out.
The school has, I think, never been better organized, or prepared to do
better work than at present, nor have better results ever been accomplished
within my knowlege of the school, than during the past two years. It is,
indeed, comforting to note the devotion that all, both teachers and pupils,
have shown to the duties they have to preform, and to observe that year
by year a little better results are accomplished, that we are not only holding our own, but that our line of progress is steadily advancing, and that
our standard of attainments each year is a little higher than for the year
preceding. In matter and methods of instruction we seek not for the good
alone but for that which is best, and will best serve the interests of
those in whose behalf we labor.
INDUSTEIES.

Pupils after five years of continuous work in school are placed in the
shops for industrial instruction. During all of their subsequent course
they are one-half of each day in school and the other half in the shops or
at some industrial work.

SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT.

25

In the cabinet shop during the last two years there has been an average
of about thirty-seven boys under the training of Mr. B. Barton, the
foreman and Mr. J. Foss his assistant.
Their time has been occupied in making such repairs and improvements
about the premises as were needed, and in making some pieces of furniture.
Our efforts with the boys in this department have been to make skillful
wood working mechanics of all of them possible, and to utilize their labor
as far as possible in supplying the immediate needs of the school in their
line of work. That we do not make skilled workmen of them all, goes
without saying, but all learn to be industrious and to apply themselves in
some useful way. Many of our boys do, however, become very expert in
their trade as many jobs or little pieces of work on the grounds will show.
Very few boys whom we turn out from this department as mechanics, go
long without finding remunerative work, and just before the close of the
last school year, the proprietor of a large establishment, in our State, for
manufacturing furniture, wrote us that he would take all the boys we coiild
recommend from this department, and in response to this request several
of our boys are now there, employed as carvers or cabinet makers,
In the shoeshop about twenty boys have during the two years received
daily instruction from Mr. John Lynch. They are occupied mostly in
furnishing foot wear for the children in school. Some little work, however, is done for people outside, and that too for those who patronize our
shops upon the merits of the work turned out. Many of our boys from
this department are occupying good positions and at good salaries.
It is a good trade for those who master it, as many of our boys do, and
not a bad one for those who succeed indifferently; for there is always
plenty of cobbling near home.
The printing office is still crowded but doing excellent work under the
management of "W. G. Bryant. There are generally in this department
about twenty pupils, four o£ whom during the last two years have been
girls. Our paper, the Mirror, is published each week, and besides all the
necessary printing for the school is done in the office. As in other departments, not all of those who learn this trade, follow it after they have left
the school, but a large proportion of our pupils who have learned the
printer's art here find remunerative employment in this kind of work when
they go out to do for themselves.
A sewing department is carried on under the instruction of Miss Aggie
Ballantyne. Here girls are taught for three hours each day, to cut, fit,
sew and to make their own clothes. In this department also much of the
bedding for the school is made and table linen and many other needed
articles. The girls are also employed each day in the ironing room, in the
kitchen, in the dormitories and about the buildings where they can be
employed to advantage, and where they can learn to do such work as will
likely be required of them in their own homes.
Some boys are also employed in the bakery, some in the fitting room or
engineering department and others upon the farm and in the care of the
stock.
As far as possible we try to give to each child a kind of industrial training in the line of his own taste or the choice of his parents, and to teach
him such things as he will employ to the best advantage in his own selfsupport when he leaves us.
4

26

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.

To this end foremen are employed in each department, skilled each in
his or her particular trade and competent to give instruction in the same.
HEALTH.

It is with the greatest pleasure, satisfaction and gratefulness to an overruling providence, that I am able to report another two years without a
single death, and I may add further, that it is now over five years since
death has occurred among the children in the school
This is, indeed, a remarkable record when we consider the frail constitutions that many of our children have and their susceptibility to diseases.
Children return to us with their ailments, or bring contagious diseases to
us from their homes, and afflictions of various kinds frequently creep in
upon us, but with the prompt and skillful treatment they receive and the
excellent care we are able to now provide for the sick, no diseases prevail
to any great extent.
The children are kept upon a wholesome diet, are required to observe
regular habits, and have warm, comfortable rooms to sleep in. These
conditions with all of the sanitary arrangements in and about the buildings
as good as they can be made, and kept, with constant attention, and the
watchful care given for the welfare of the children, has secured to us the
very healthful record I am able to report. For further details upon this
subject I refer you to the report of the physician.
IMPROVEMENTS.

The twelve hundred dollars appropriated for painting and calcimining
has all been expended in renewing and repairing in such portions of the
buildings as most needed it in order to preserve them and keep them in
proper condition for occupancy.
The two hundred dollars for library has all been expended; a portion of
it for new books, but the larger part of it however, for repairing and
rebinding books already on hand and in such condition to make such
repairs necessary in order to save them.
About fifty rods of artificial stone walk have been built tipon the
grounds, and thirty rods of plank walk upon the streets, besides some
repairs to the old walks, with the five hundred dollars granted us for this
purpose.
For furniture, beds and bedding there was appropriated a sum of fifteen
hundred dollars. This has been expended in replacing such furniture,
bedding and other articles as needed renewing, and to furnish apartments
necessary to provide additional room to accommodate our increased number
of pupils.
The roofs and gutters have been kept in repair during the last year out
of the fund provided for this work, and there is considerable work required
on them which will need the balance of the five hundred dollars.
A shed for stock has been built. This is a much larger and better
building than could have been constructed out of the appropriation alone.
But by expending the five hundred dollars for the purchase of material
and doing all the work with the boys in the shop we have made for the
State a very excellent and serviceable building at the very moderate cost of
the appropriation.
From the amount appropriated for fencing, tiling, sewers and grounds,

SUPERINTENDENT'S EEPORT.

27

some eight hundred rods of tile have been put in, four hundred rods of
fence built and rebuilt, sewers quite extensively repaired and grounds
graded, improved and extended.
ESTIMATES.

For the two years to come, I have carefully calculated the needs of the
school and submit the following:
Current expenses, 1891..
.$58,00000
1892
58,000 00
The amount asked for current expenses is determined by the amount
actually expended during the last two years. This was, per capita,
$190.80, as shown by dividing the total expenditure by the average number
of pupils, 298. To provide for a slight, necessary increase in the salaries
of a few teachers who are in the line of promotion, and a probable increase
of six or seven in attendance, a number very likely to be reached, would
upon the above basis, make necessary an appropriation of $58,000.00 per
annum.
This can be, in no sense, considered an extravagant estimate, but a very
economical one, when compared with the cost of educating the deaf in
other like institutions where the average is upwards of $225.00 per year, or
$30.00 or more in excess of our own per capita cost.
Statements are frequently prepared showing the cost of maintaining our
different State institutions. From the bare figures of which they, perhaps,
solely consist, comparisons are made. It is needless to say that the conclusions thus reached, are far from just, when they are determined in a
manner that places all institutions upon the same basis. Nearly all of
them are maintained for classes that are entirely different and they require
the employment of means for the accomplishment of their purposes, that
involve a greater necessary expenditure in some than in others.
In addition to nearly all that is required in other State institutions, we
maintain a school department, in. which a corps of thoroughly trained and
expert instructors are necessary to the successful prosecution of the work.
This is done ,at an annual cost of about $50.00 per pupil, for instruction
alone, and this statement of fact, I am sure, will satisfy the query so often
raised in regard to the discrepancies that appear in the tabulated statements of the expenditures of our State institutions; at least so far as our
own is concerned.
I am sincere in the belief that we could not, with proper regard to the
performance of the work we have to do and the best interests of the school
and those to be benefited thereby, ask for less than the amount named for
current expenses. The following is the estimate in detail:
Salaries, Officers and Employes.
Superintendent
Steward
Matron
Assistant Matron
Mending Woman
Watchman
Choreman
Visitors' Attendant
Clerk Hire

$1,800
1,200
500
350
200
480
360
200
100

$5,190 00

28

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.

Baker and Domestics
Baker
Cook
Assistant Cook
5 Domestics, $141
8
"
$117.50
Institute Extra Help

500
208
705
940
150

Teachers and Supervisors,
4 Teachers, $1,200
1
1
1
2
$580
4
$500
1
2
$320
2
$200
3 Supervisors for



,

Medical expenses:
Salary of physician
Nurses
Medicines, hospital supplies, etc
Laundry:

.

Salary of two washerwomen
Salary of two ironers
Soap, starch, repairs, etc

$4,800
950
775
600
1,160
2,000
350
640
400
1,100
$500 00
250 00
450 00
352 50
282 00
600 00

Farm and Garden:
Salary of farmer
Salary of stockman
Salary of teamster
Extra labor
Tools, seed and repairs
Cows
.
Feed

54000
216 00
24000
20000
80 00
20000
200 00

Printing Office:
Salary of foreman
Supplies and repairs

600 00
100 00

Heating apparatus:
Salaryof engineer
Salary of assistant engineer
Salary of
fireman
Tools, repairs, etc

,

1,08000
630 00
57000
1,220 00

Cabinet Shop:
Salary of foreman
Salaryof assistant foreman
Stock, tools, etc

75000
626 00
500 00

$2,963 00

12,775 00

1,200 00

1,234 50

1,676 00

70000

3,500 00

1,876 00

$31,114 50
Shoe Shop:

Salary of foreman
Supplies, tools, etc

$70000
700 00

Groceries.,
Meat and
Butter, lard and eggs
Flour and meal

5,000 00
3,20000
2,42650
1,600 00
1,05000

fish
-

..

14QQ OQ

13,276 50

29

SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT.
Fuel
Lights
Furniture
Bedding
Crockery cooking utensils
School books, and school supplies
Printing, stationery, etc
Postage, telegraph and telephone
Freight, drayage and express
Repairs on buildings
Wagon, harness, horseshoeing, etc.
"Water supply
Miscellaneous expenses, pails, brooms, brushes,
traveling expenses
Interest
Sewing Department:
Salary of sewing women
Supplies for sewing and mending rooms

$7,703
1,500
400
300
200
300
175
225
150
1,500
200
900

50
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

500 00
358 06
180 00
145 00

$14,411 56
325 00
$60,527 56
2,527 56

Less estimated earnings.

$58,000 00
SPECIAL.

Painting and calcimining, $1,200.00.
This amount has, in past years, been found necessary to keep the buildings in a proper state of preservation. There is a great amount of wear
in the interior of the buildings, especially in those parts frequented by
pupils, and some portions of them need renewing almost every year. A
large part of this fund is required to keep such apartments of the buildings in cleanly condition, and to make them wholesome and suitable for
the occupancy of the children. This amount has been usually granted
and has never been found too much for the purpose.
Library and apparatus, $1,000.00.
For many years, the legislature has, at each session, granted us twohundred dollars for the library and school apparatus. This, when the
school was small, more amply supplied the need of reading matter. With
the present number of pupils, however, and the increased use that is made
of the library it is barely sufficient to re-bind the books and renew copies
of those that have become worn out. The fact is there are today fewer
volumes in the library than six years ago, and the number we now have
can not be much increased with an expenditure of only one hundred
dollars per year.
Our children are, as a rule, great readers and it is the principal source of
information and entertainment for them, and the advantages of a well
selected and ample library can hardly be overestimated. Certainly one
thousand dollars can, during the next two years, be very profitably
invested for this purpose and supplying such apparatus as is needed in
school work.
Painting outside brick-work, $2,800.00.
Ten of our buildings are made of brick and have been erected at different times covering a period of about thirty-five years. Consequently, different materials or different kinds of brick have been used in their construction, and some are new and some are old, and look antiquated, all of which

30

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.

makes a very motley collection in appearance. Very few buildings, either
for public or private purposes, are made of common brick now-a-days and
left unpainted, and most of our State institutions have anticipated us in
this improvement. In order therefore, that our buildings may be better
preserved, and more uniform in their appearance, and correspond more
nearly to their surroundings and the modern style of architecture, our
board asks for a sum sufficient to do this work.
It is found by measurements that there are 17,600 square yards of surface to be covered, and the lowest estimates for doing the work as it should
be, are sixteen cents per square yard. This provides for a "slush" or
cement coat and two coats of paint of solid red color and also for the necessary pointing around the windows. Reckoning upon this basis the full
amount of two thousand eight hundred dollars would be required.
Steam Mangle, $400.00.
The present machine has been in use twelve or fourteen years and was
one of the first patents. By long service it has become so worn as to be
useless. The machines are, we are informed, not now manufactured, and
could not be repaired, if it were profitable to do so. The need of such a
machine today, is much greater than when the present one was purchased,
and with the amount of work that must be turned out of the laundry each
week, nearly six thousand pieces, it is indispensable.
Bedsteads and wire mattresses, $500.00.
About one hundred and seventy-five of our bedsteads are of an old iron
pattern and they have been in use twenty or twenty-five years. They are
now so worn out and broken as to be unfit, many of them, for further
service.
To supply our immediate and pressing needs and give the children a
respectable and comfortable bed, the amount of five hundred dollars is
necessary.
Tiling and fencing, etc., $500.00
Considerable portions of the institution farm are a heavy clay soil, and
of a character that is much benefited by under draining. During the last
four years a part of the farming lands have been tiled, and the greater ease
with which such lands can be tilled and their increased and more certain
crops, have fully demonstrated the utility of such an investment. About
forty acres yet remain undrained and the amount asked or so much of it as
can be used for this purpose after the building of such fences as may be
needed will go far towards placing them in a much more remunerative
condition.
Eental of lands, $400.00.
There are in the farm belonging to the school 147 acres of land. Taking
out the grounds occupied by buildings it leaves only about one hundred
acres for pasture, meadow and necessary tillage. We are now keeping
thirty cows and four horses and this amount of land has been found
insufficient for their proper care. It has therefore been found necessary
to rent fifty acres adjoining. This has been done at an annual cost of two
hundred dollars, and the estimate made is to provide for the same two
years to come.
Decorating and improving chapel, hospitals, and sitting rooms, $500.00.
In order that the children may receive the full benefit given in their
chapel instruction, and the many entertainments held there, it is necessary
that they should be able to see well. The seats are now so arranged on a
level that they obstruct each other's view. The chapel is also poorly

SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT.

31

lighted and dingy. It is desired to improve the seats by elevating them,
to change the lighting and to improve the appearance of the interior by
frescoing the walls and providing pictures for them so as to make it a more
attractive place than it now is. We also desire with a part of this appropriation to procure some pictures for the walls of the study rooms and
hospitals that they may not appear as cheerless as they do now.
The foregoing estimates have been prepared after a careful study of
what seemed to be the real needs of the school. It is the policy to run the
school with the strictest economy consistent with thorough work, and with
this end in view the above estimates have been made. I feel confident
that a careful examination of what the school is accomplishing, and a comparison of cost with similar work in other institutions will fully sustain
these conclusions.
In closing this report I feel it my duty to mention the spirit of good will
that pervades every department of the school and has seemed to actuate
every one of its employes; pupils, too, under the same motives are respectful
to all proper authority, and uniformly courteous to teachers and officers
and kind and considerate with each other; and year by year it is, indeed,
gratifying to note this increased kindly feeling as a coiitroling power
among them.
To the board, I wish to express my most sincere gratitude for their support and cooperation. All recommendations have been honestly and fairly
considered, and in all efforts to promote the interests of the school I am
sure I have been duly sustained. The good degree of success we have
attained, I feel is due largely to the liberal, generous policy of the board,
and under the continuance of such policy its interests will not suffer.
Aided by your counsels and encouraged by your many expressions of
appreciation, the burden of my duties has been much lightened, and for
this, and your fidelity and confidence I again extend you most sincere
thanks.
Respectfully submitted,
M. T. GASS, Supt.
Jane 30, 1890.

PHYSICIAN'S REPORT.

To the Board of Trustees of the Michigan School for the Deaf:
GENTLEMEN—Since my last report this Institution has been provided
with a good hospital. It is well lighted, well heated, well ventilated and
well furnished with everything necessary for the treatment and comfort of
the sick. Its capacity is ample for all ordinary demands. It is provided
with quarantine apartments for the treatment of epidemic diseases, and
these rooms are so located as to make the quarantine absolutely perfect.
The hospital is so nearly part and parcel of the institution proper, that
the expense for heating, lighting, cooking, and attendance is the very least
possible, much less than if it were a separate building. When it is remembered that most deaf and dumb children have become so through
some nearly fatal sickness which has undermined their constitutions and
ruined the health for life, it will be readily appreciated that there will be
much sickness and general feebleness among them.
They furnish the best of soil for the development and ravages of all
endemic, epidemic and contagious diseases. Consequently, a good hospital
is a prime necessity, and it is a wonder that the institution has not sooner
been provided for in this respect. Then too in these children a part of
their senses being locked up, they have less judgment about diet, exposure
and danger, than other children, and they need more attention, and supervision from the superintendent, the matrons, the nurses, the teachers, the
care-takers, and the physician than healthy hearing children require in
any other of our public institutions.
The school rooms, dormitories, study rooms, work rooms and closets of
the institution are all perfectly and evenly heated and are well lighted and
ventilated. The sewerage about the institution and adjoining premises is
as nearly perfect as it can be made, and the water supply is abundant
and of good quality.
The average number of pupils attending the institution during the last
two years is three hundred.
The number of pupils admitted to the hospital for the school year of
1888-89 was 480 and the number admitted for the corresponding period of
1889-90 was 573. Of these there were 144 cases of mumps, 20 cases of
chicken pox, 126 cases of roethelii or dutch measels, 225 cases of la grippe
and one case of scarlatina which was discovered early and so perfectly
quarentined that no other cases occurred, although the disease was very
prevalent in the city.

PHYSICIAN'S REPORT.

33

Of the other diseases treated in our hospital during the last two years,
severe colds and malarial fever were the most prevalent but there were
many cases of pneumonia, rheumatism, consumption, anaemia, amenorrhea, conjunctivitis, eczema, itch and injuries of every kind and degree.
Pupils come from all parts of the State and bring all sorts of diseases with
them.
There has not been a death in the institution during the last two years.
I am, gentlemen,
Your obedient servant,
A. A. THOMPSON A. M., M. D.
5

PUPILS PRESENT IN 1888-9.

GIELS.
Name.

Avery Ida Belle
Alexander Katie
Allen, Katie
^.dams Helen J.
Anderson, Berthllda
Allen, Hattie R.
Bussler, EUHUH
Blashill, Margaret
Babcock Nellie
Boven, Mary
Busha, Alice
Brierton, Mary L
Baird, Hattie
Burling, Bertha M.
Brown, Lillie E
Ballard, Clara
Bell, Mazzie
Bradley, Edith
Baker, Melissa
B use, Susannah A.
Cluno. K^ita Afrn&R

Crosby, Nettie R.
Carrol, Lyla Bell
Choate, Lena M.
Charbona, Hose
Cromer, Cora May
Clark, Amelia H.
Caruthers, Jennie June
Cochran Fannie A.
Carr, Ethel M.
Drew, Clara Jane
Doughty, Nellie A
Daoust, Mary
Donal, Martha A.
Engel^au, Mary
Esh. Mary Agnes
Ellsworth, Blanche B.
Ellis, Nettie
Fry, Catherine_ _ ... -_.
Falker, Jennie
Flater, Anna
Fairbanks, Ettie_ . .
Fuhrmann, Ellen
Fleischer, May bell „
Frace, Georgie

P. O. Address.

Detroit
Wacousta
Lynn
Flint
Flint
East Lake __
Manistique
Ludington
Crosswell
Flint
Graafschap

County.

Wayne.
Clinton.
_ _ St. Glair.
Genesee.
Genesee.
Manistee.
. . Schooloratt.
Mason.
Sanilac.
Genesee.
Allegan.
Grosse Isle
.- _.L Wayne.
Huron.
Kinde
St Joseph
Berrien.
Berrien.
Buchanan
Newaygo.
Woodville
Oakland.
Clarkston
Saginaw.
Saginaw
Jackson.
Jackson
Montcalm.
Edmore
Grand Rapids
Kent.
Marquette.
Marquette
Berrien.
New Buffalo
Cass.
Cassopolis
Harbor Springs
Emmet.
Mackinac.
St. Ignace
Berrien.
St. Joseph
Kalamazoo.
Vicksburg
Buchanan
Berrien.
Van Buren.
Bangor
Muskegon.
Muskegon
Berrien.
Pipestone
Saginaw.
Saginaw
Montcalm.
Stanton
Ionia.
Matherton
St. Clair.
St. Glair
Cheboygan.
Cheboygan
Gratiot.
Elm Hall
Oceana.
Bird
St. Clair.
Brockway Center
St. Clair.
Port Huron
Stetson . . _ Oceana.
St. Johns
. _ Clinton.
Monroe.
Athlone
Oakland.
Holly _
Eaton.
Ainger

35

LIST OF PUPILS.
GIRLS—CONTINUED.
Name.

Fay Edith Maria
Failing Louise f\, Delia
Gage, Kittie May
Gray Ivy M
Gilbert Emma J.
Grattan, Lavonia
Gillispie Margaret E.
Gagnon Mary J.
Golden, Catherine
Gillniore Fannie
TTiimmAl, Mahftl

Hadrill, Ida M.
Hardenburgh Jenny
TTnrdenhiirgh, Abv

Huggart, Lottie
Hawley Ella Blanche
Hamilton, Grace L.
Howell, Lilly B.
Hamilton Elizabeth
Holtz, Bertha
TTfirhst

Anna, Ma,gpip

Herrington, Millicent
Hazen Myrtle H
Inman, Ida C
Johnston, Christina
Johnston Sarah E
Johnson, Millie
Jones, Nellie D
Jones, Malvina M.
Jones, Grace
Kamps, Gezina
Knight, Grace P.
Kopp, Emma
Kelly, Joanna
Krugler, Bertha
Lloyd, Mary E.
La Brush Maude
Ladley, Alice
Leidlein, Sophia
Lyons, Augusta
Latrondres, Rosella
Maher, Nellie
Mosher, Diana
Myers, Lulu I.
Martin, Grace I
Miller, Nettie L.
Mars, tEthel Mav
Mars, ' Josephine
Mercier, Mary J.
Maxwell, Gertrude E
Mattoon, Nellie
McColl, Frankie B. '
McColl, Ida M
McLellan. Elizabeth

P. 0. Address.

Swartz Creek
Tekonsha _ __._
Detroit
Erie
Sturgis „_ _
Detroit
Manton
Williamston .
Orville
Saginaw.._
Dennison_
Eaton Rapids
Nashville
Pontiac _.
Pontiac
Pontiac _ _ _ _ ._
Flint..
Mason
Detroit
Garland . _ _
Alpena
Homer _ _
Bay City
Rochester Lansing
Pipestone
Negaunee
Grindstone City
Grindstone Citv
Cato
West Bay City
Farwell
Ypsilanti
Zeeland
Flint
Clinton ,
Niles
Bangor
Sears
...
Chippewa Lake
Port Huron
South Saginaw _
Mason
Carrolton _
Grand Haven
Hoytville
Sturgis
Detroit
Detroit
Berrien Springs _
Berrien Springs.
Portsmouth
Detroit
Novesta
Chelsea
Chelsea
Saginaw

County.

Genesee.
Calhoun.
Wayne.
Monroe.
St. Joseph.
Wayne.
Wexford.
Ingham.
Mackinac.
- - Saginaw.
Ottawa.
Eaton.
Barry.
Oakland.
Oakland.
Oakland.
Genesee.
Ingham.
Wayne.
Shiawassee.
Alpena.
Calhoun.
Bay.
Oakland.
Ingham.
Berrien.
Marquette.
Huron.
Huron.
Montcalm.
Bay.
Clare.
Washtenaw.
Ottawa.
Genesee.
Lenawee.
Berrien.
Van Buren.
. Osceola.
Mecosta.
St. Clair.
Sagmaw.
Ingham.
Saginaw.
Ottawa.
Eaton.
St. Joseph.
Wayne.
Wayne.
Berrien.
Berrien.
Bay.
Wayne.
Tuscola.
Washtenaw.
Washtenaw.
Saginaw.

36

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.
GIRLS—CONTINUED.
Name.

McCuaig, Annie .McKenzie, Nona S.
Nyland, Angie
Nichols, Zade M.
Nadeau, Emily
O'Connor, Mary
Idfield, Gertrude A.
arks, Winnie
Pratt, Eda T.
Priest, Emma J.
Perkins, Henrietta
Purdy, Lucy A.
Pouquette, Rosie
Quinn, Margaret
Rowack, Pauline
Reidy, Lizzie J.
Roberts, Louise
Reeves, Susan
Remer, Ida
Rice, Lillie May
Roberts. Josephine
Scott, Almina M.
Scott, Clara Belle
Sturtevant, C. Pearl
Schrikkema, Belle
Sinclair, Lillie May
Schwind, Emma C.
Shumway • Phoebe C.
Shumway, Ida
Shumway, Laura
Shumway, Bessie
Sessions, Mary
Smith, Carol infi

Spence, Alwildia M.
Slonecki, Cecilia
Schindehette, Clara
Turner, Jane
Thompson, Elizabeth
Tebow, Carrie
Tallon, Calla
Thompson, Agnes A. _
Vincent, Melvina
Vosberg, Preederica
Wade Eunice
Washburn, Flora
Warne, Charlotte S.
Williamson, Mamie
Weller, Adeline
Willson, Lizzie
Welch, Maggie
Ypma, Jessie
Zwiemka, Mary

P. O. Address.

County.

Carson City
Montcalm.
Negaunee
Marquette.
Tecumseh _ _ _ _ _
Lenawee.
Leonidas
St. Joseph.
Monroe
Monroe.
Elmira
Otsego.
Detroit
Wayne.
St. Louis
_ _ Gratiot.
Elm Hall
Gratiot.
Bartlett
Grand Traverse.
Armada _ _
_ _ Macomb.
Marshall
Calhoun.
Midland
Midland.
Detroit
Wayne.
Detroit
Wayne.
Kenokee _ _
St. Clair.
Stephenson
Menominee.
Cone Station
Monroe.
Saginaw
_
_ _ Saginaw.
Alpena
Alpena.
Stephenson
Menominee.
Saranac
Ionia.
Flint
Genesee.
Morenci _
Lenawee.
Grand Rapids
Kent.
Ellsworth
Antrim.
Traverse City. .
Grand Traverse.
Pewamo
Ionia.
Pewamo
__
Ionia.
Pewamo
_ Ionia.
Pewamo
Ionia.
Lapeer
Lapeer.
Ellington
Tuscola.
Martinsvillfe _
Wayne.
Manistee
Manistee.
Bay City
Bay.
Ionia ..
._
Ionia.
Bay City
Bay.
Holstein
Oceana.
Saginaw
Saginaw.
St. Joseph
Berrien.
Cheboygan.
Cheboygan
Cadillac _
Wexford.
Peach Belt
Allegan.
Okemos
Ingham.
Hillsdale
Hillsdale.
Bay City
Bay.
Pipe Stone..
. _ Berrien.
Kalkaska.
Leetsville _
Valley Center _
Sanilac.
Jamestown
Ottawa.
Filer City
Manistee.
T



LIST OF PUPILS.

37

BOYS:
P. O.* Address.

Name.

Ackelius, William
Allera, Prank
Berry, Charles Stanley
Bartsch, Conrad C.
Baker, Christopher
Brodwolf, William C.
Barron, Felix
Bassett, Miles S.
Brownrigg, Stephen,
Bradway, James
Barnhart, Michael
Bailey, Harry P.
Burke, Thomas P.
Burkle, Fred
Born, John F.
Bertrand, George A.
Bell, William G.
Barrett, William A.
Brosseau, Senophil
Brown, Harry J.
Carpenter, Roy C.
Carpenter, LeRoy C.
Cowden, Fred
Cranston, George
Carlton, Claude A.
Cummiford, Willie J.
Colomb, Martine
Collett, Frank E.
Connor, Robert
Closson, Milo J.
Calkins, Thomas
Chenery, James S
Cope, Frank
Canneld, Charles A.
Chapman. DeWitt C.Corcoran, Thomas J.
Crips, Hubert Chrouch. Cornelius. .
Day, Halsey T.
Detrich, William. .
Drew, Charles Elson
__
Dodds, Mortimer R. .
Dzikowski, Stanislaus
De'Vlieger, Abraham ..
Dwyer, James- __
Diederick, John
Durocher, Thomas A.
Danielski, Frank. _
Fry, William James .
Flater, WalterFaxon, William E.
Fletcher, George S.
Flanagan, William
Graham, Charles
Gebraad, Peter
Grose, Thomas

.

Birch Run
Norris
Mecosta
Detroit
Lapeer
New Buffalo
Whitehall
Union City
South Saginaw
_ __
Bronson
Kilkenny
Buchanan
Attica
Marshall _ _ _ _
Monroe
Hersey
Millington
Detroit
Carrollton
Jackson
Flint
Flint
Chippewa Lake
Belmont
Corunna
South Saginaw
Arenac
Lansing
Hillman
Manton
Grand Rapids
Kalamazoo
Amboy
Scotts
Ammon
Bay City
Ouster
Detroit
Oakfield Center
Saginaw
Pipe Stone
South Haven
Verona
. „ Grand Rapids
.
Ishpeming
Jackson
Monroe
Detroit
Brockway Center
Stetson
Jacksoi.
Ypsiianti
Deer Lake
Carsonville
Grand Rapids
Hancock

County.

Saginaw.
Wayne.
Mecosta.
Wayne.
Lapeer.
Berrien
Muskegon.
Branch
Saginaw
Branch.
Huron.
Berrien
Lapeer
Calhoun.
Monroe.
Osceola
Tuscola
Wayne.
Saginaw.
Jackson.
Genesee.
Genesee.
Mecosta.
Kent.
Shiawassee.
Saginaw.
Arenac.
Ingham.
Montmorency.
Wexford
Kent.
Kalamazoo.
Hillsdale.
Kalamazoo.
Wayne.
Bay.
Mason.
Wayne.
Kent.
Saginaw.
Berrien.
Van Buren.
Huron.
Kent.
Marquette.
Jackson.
Monroe.
Wayne.
St. Clair.
Oceana.
Jackson
Washten aw.
Lake.
Huron
Kent.
Houghton.

38

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.
BOYS—CONTINUED.

Name.



Gagnier, Arthur
Grimm, MichaeU.
_.
Gabel, George
Gruetzmacher, Charles
Garber, Dorsey
Hardenburgh, Frank
Hardenburgh, Julius
Hastings, Eddie N.
Herrington, Russell
Hintz, John
Harris, Charles W.
Hackert, George Henry
Hall, James M.
Hamilton, Robert
Hanson, George Brown
Haden, William
Hardenburgh, Bert
Johnson, Delbert
Jackson, Theodore
Janiski, John
-

Jacobs, Fjmarmftl

Jenks, Martin S.
Johnson, George F
Kabrofskie, John
Knight, Ralph Allen
,
Lillie, Elias Nahumn
Laurenz, Charles F. W.
Lapanse, Henry
-.
Lypsmmbj T^rfl.nk

Lee, Clarence E.
Lynch, Lawrence
Larkins, Thomas
Larkins, George B.
Lament, Charles G.
Loomis, Earl A,
Lincoln Luther M
Langkam, John
Loh, Bruno
Lawrason Fred
LeClear, Walter C.
L'heureux, Peter
Lee, William Charles
Larkins, William
Loeffler Charles M.
Moore, Stewart
Maher, William E.
Mnfifielmartj Albert, F

Miller, Alfred
Miller, Arthur R.
Miller, Charles
Mohan, Thomas P.
Mars, Loran
Mercier, Gilbert
Marquis, George
Miller, John Joseph
Meyers, John

.- „_

P. O. AddrevSS.

County.

Detroit
Wayne.
Detroit..
Wayne.
Reed City
Osceola.
Wellsville .
Lenawee.
Charlotte
Eaton.
Pontiac
Oakland.
Eagle
Clinton.
Eaton Rapids
Eaton.
Grand Rapids.
Kent.
Eastman ville
Ottawa.
Fostoria
Tuscola.
Star Citv
_
Misssukee.
Lansing
Ingham.
Attica..
. ._._.--_ Lapeer.
Bay City
Bay.
East Saugatuck
Allegan.
Pontiac .
Oakland.
Flint
Genesee.
Pontiac
Oakland.
Manistee
.
__ Manistee.
Detroit
Wayne.
Corunna
Shiawassee.
Midland
Midland.
Detroit
Wayne.
Gogebic.
- Iron wood .
Saranac
Ionia.
Saginaw .
Saginaw.
St. Clair.
Anchorville Fair Haven
St. Clair.
Ganges ._
Allegan.
Bay City
Bay.
Springwells
Wayne.
Springwells
Wayne.
Scottville
Mason.
Hobart
Wexford.
Brockway Center
St. Clair.
Hersey
Osceola.
Bronson..
Branch.
Grand Rapids
Kent.
Grattan Center.
Kent.
Trenton .
__ Wayne.
Muskegon
Muskegon.
Springwells
_ Wayne.
Monroe
Monroe.
Black River
Alcona.
Ottawa.
Grand Haven
Huron.
Pinnebog
Brinton
. _ Isabella.
Wayne.
Detroit..
.
Fair Haven
St. Clair.
Wayne.
Detroit
_
Wayne.
Detroit
Berrien.
Berrien Springs
Portsmouth
Bay.
Iron.
Crystal Falls
Wayne.
Detroit
Bay.
Bay City
-.

39

LIST OF PUPILS.
BOYS—CONTINUED.
P. O. Address.

Name.

Myer, Marcus H.
Maher, Henry
McColl, Eugene A
McHugh, Joseph
McCuaig, Alexander
McDonald, Curtis A.
McKeever, Frank
McHugh, Frank
Nink, Jacob. _
Nickel, Otto
Nichols, Wm. J
Oleson, Raymond _ _ „ _
Oberski, Marshall
Palmer, William,
Pashby, Ernest
Piper, Cecil
Polk, Peter
Polk, John
Peltier, Napoleon
Pettit, Charles L
Pettit, Howard L.
Quick, George
Robinson, Velorious
Roizowiez, Mike
Reynolds, Albert
Ryan, William M.
Rixom, Elzeworth D.
Ramage, Francis O.
Riley, Carlton D.
Rutherford, John J
Russow, Fred
Rosenfield, Emil
Ravell, Jesse A.
Rice, Charles C.
Reams, Henry
Simmons, Guy
Streiber, William
Sprague, William G.
Sherburne, Charles F.
Stanley, George H.
Stanley, Lewis F
Stenroos, Karl A.
Smith, Norman F.
Smith, Frank. .
Seibert, George
Shamping, Lewis E.
Sheppard, Albert
Stewart, William A.
Saine, Dewald
Sutton, William A.
Spence, Seth W.
Schwingschlegl, Anton
Schlupkowski, Charles
Sickles, Daniel M.
St George, Peter
Sweeney, Eugene
Schneider, August R. . .

.__
...

Oxford, Mississippi.,
Grand Haven
Chelsea
St. Ignace
Carson City _
Greenbush
Wixom
Detroit
North Dorr, _ . . .
Detroit
St. Louis - _ _ _
Ishpeming
__ _
Parisville
Lansing.
Constantine
Petersburgh _
Wyandotte . .
Wyandotte
Mt. Clemens
Chester
Chester
Calumet
Baldwin
East Lake
_
Coldwater
Detroit
Tecumseh-Port Huron
Greenville
North Branch
Monroe
Detroit
Flint
Albion
Mt. Pleasant .
Rogerville
Cheboygan
Kendall
__
South Blendon
2Btna
2Etna
Muskegon
Galien
_
Ypsilanti . _ _
Flint
Grosse Point
Big Run, Pennslyvania.
Saginaw
Cadillac . . -_._ — _
Armada
Martinsville .
Monroe .
Detroit
Attica
Au Sauble
Detroit
.
Detroit...

Connty.

Ottawa.
Washtenaw.
Mackinac.
Montcalm.
Alcona.
Oakland.
Wayne.
Kent.
WTayne.

Gratiot.
Marquette.
Huron.
Ingham.
St. Joseph.
Monroe.
Wayne.
Wayne.
Macomb.
Eaton.
Eaton.
Houghton.
Lake.
Manistee.
Branch.
Wayne.
Lenawee.
St. Glair.
Montcalm.
Lapeer.
Monroe.
Wayne.
Genesee.
Calhoun.
Isabella.
Genesee.
Cheboygan.
Van Buren.
Ottawa.
Newaygo.
Newaygo.
Muskegoa.
Berrien.
Washtenaw.
Genesee.
Wayne.
Saginaw.
Wexford.
Macomb.
Wayne.
Monroe.
Wayne.
Lapeer.
losco.
Wayne.
Wayne.

40

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.
BOYS—CONTINUED.
P. O. Address.

Name.

Sturm, Arthur
Snow, Clarence N.
Schweiss, George
Tobey, George L
Terry, Ray
Tripp George F
Thompson, Edward
Taylor, Charles M.
Tucker, Albert
Vaughn, Walter Scott
Voisine, John
Webb, Joseph H.
Walter, Arthur
Wittman, Tobias
Wattlino-, Earl E.
Wolski, John
Warren, Emory P.
Warner, William
Wrobleski, Stanislaus
Wilkinson, George R.
T^im merman, .Tnhn

Zeh, William J.

_ _

_ _ . . Saline
Kalamazoo
Wyandotte
Galesburgh
West Bay City
Detroit
Melvin
Mulliken
Charlotte
Reading
Banks..
Sears
South Lyons
Detroit
Dundee
Calumet Oscoda .
Grand Rapids
Port Austin
Conklin
Marquette
Newport

County.

.

Washtenaw.
Kalamazoo.
Wayne.
Kalamazoo.
Bay.
Wayne.
Sanilac.
Eaton.
Eaton.
Hillsdale.
Bay.
Osceola.
Osceola.
Wayne.
Monroe.
Houghton .
losco.
Kent.
Huron.
Ottawa.
Marquette.
Monroe.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

Grateful acknowledgments are due for the following favors, which have
•contributed no little to the pleasure, convenience and interests of the pupils
and to the welfare of the institution:
To ex-Governor Alger, for his generous gift at Christmas time.
To the officers of the Flint & Pere Marquette Railroad, Chicago & Grand
Trunk, Grand Rapids & Indiana, Michigan Central, Michigan Southern,
Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee, and other roads, for favors extended
in the transportation of pupils to their homes.
To the department of education, for pamphlets and reports.
To publishers of the following papers and periodicals:
Name.

•Globe
Citizen
Dftmortrat

Journal
Public Leader,
..
Courier
Michigan Farmer...
Sower
Times
Journal
Michigan Dairyman. __
Granger
Telegraph..
College Index
Republican
Herald
.
Dispatch
Independent
Democrat
Recorder
Democrat
__
Enterprise
Church Helper
Republican
_ __ .
Ypsilantian
Telephone .
Herald
Advertiser
Herald
....
Democrat
News
Normal News. .._ . ....
_
Traverse Bay Eagle. ..

State.

City.

Flint

Micl ilgan

FlintFlint
Flint

Detroit
.
Detroit
Detroit _,
Detroit
Detroit
Detroit
Grand Rapids
Grand Rapids
Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
Lansing
. East Saginaw .__.
Maple Rapids
Fenton ._
Hillsdale
Albion
Cheboygan
Otter Lake
Hastings
Midland
Ypsilanti
Reading..
Quincy
Holly
Big Rapids. _
Clare
Calumet
YpsilantiTraverse City..

i
i

MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS-CONTINUED.
Name.

Witness
Mail and Express
Our Little People
_
Journal
The Sign
Clionian _ _
_ _ .
The Eagle
Register D & D
Deaf Mute Voice
Silent Hoosier
Advocate
. _
Silent Worker
News
Silent World
Deaf Mute
Observer
Journal D & D.
Tablet
Gazette
Star
_„
Mutes Chronicle
Companion
Record
New Method
Deaf Mute Times
Hawk Eye
Ranger
Deaf Mute Optic
Bulletin
Index,
Deaf Mute Advance
Messenger
Pelican
Deaf Mute Critic
Bugle
_

State.

City.

-

New York
New York
Rochester
New York
Salem
Portland
.
Salt Lake City
Rome
Jackson
Indianapolis
Sioux Falls
Trenton
Berkley
Philadelphia Danville
Knoxville
Omaha
Romny
Staunton
Olathe.
Columbus
Faribault
____
Fulton
Englewood
Delevan
Council Bluffs
Austin
Little Rock
Frederick
Colorado Springs
Jacksonville
Talladege
Baton Rouge
Dubuque
Blutfton

New York.
a
tt
n

ti

tt

tt

Oregon.
Oregon.
Utah.
New York.
Mississippi.
Indiana.
Dakota.
New Jersey.
California.
Pennsylvania.
Kentuckv.
Tennessee ,
Nebraska.
West Virginia.
Virginia.
Kansas.
Ohio.
Minnesota.
Missouri.
Illinois.
Wisconsin.
Iowa.
Texas.
Arkansas.
Maryland.
Colorado.
Illinois.
Alabama.
Louisiana.
Iowa.
Indiana.

OFFICERS, TEACHERS, AND EMPLOYES.
J U N E 30, 1890.

Name.

Position.

M T. Gass
E. F. Swan

Steward
Matron

Willis Hubbard

Rate.

$1,800 00 per year
1,200 00
500 00
350 €0 "
500 00 "

_

1,300
1,200
950
925
925

'

t
<•

Addie Hendershot . .
Maggie T. Bennett
M. E Tyrrell
Emma Z. Cook

(

_... .. _

Jessie Barney.

-

E. H. Larkin
0. M. Pierce
Edwin Barton.

..

c

500 00
580 00
500 00
500 00
500 00

I
i
i
i
i

580
600
500
440
340

i
i

i

Ida M, Jack
Celia A Allen

i
t

00
00
00
00
00

(J

Foreman cabinet shop
"

printing office .

...

Resident.
«
"

"

Resident.
u

"

Resident.
u

Non resident.
"
"

*'
u
t[

280 00
24000
240 00
300 00
850 00

*

Win. G. Bryant

00
00
00
00
00

Residence.

"
"
"
"

300 00
750 00
2 00 per day
650 00 per year
60000



Non resident.
»'
i'
l(

"Fanny Cnbh
Ella E J- CTawfnrd

George L. McQuigg

Engineer
Assistant pn gin our

Farmer
Albert Welch"
Edwin Cole
Thomas Johnson _ _ , ,
Win. Leigh
Edward Starks

Choreman
Wat,nhmRn

Baker.
Cook
1 wash worn an .
1
"
1

*

1
6
8

"
"
"

4
4
1,080
670

50
00 "
00 per year
00

Resident.
Non resident.

u
530 00 "
«'
540 00
18 00 per month Resident.
20 00
20 00 "

Non resident.
40 00
10 00 per week.. Resident.
50 00 per month
"
4 00 per week__
"
3 00
t;

350
2 50
4 00

"

3 75
300

"
"

*'
«

a 50 "

.((

"
"

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